- Movements of the Moon, Mars, Venus and other stars were calculated with exactitude.
- Formulated equations that could predict when solar and lunar eclipses would take place.
- The Long Calendar system is one of the most noteworthy intellectual achievements.
Códices – Codex – Books
- Códice de Dresden - Now in Dresden, Germany, it has 39 leaves written on both sides with elaborated work of art that includes almanacs, eclipses, the Venus Cycle Charts and astrology. It contains an illustration with the picture of the sacred Maya underworld or Xibalbá: on top, it has a representation of the flood. There are warnings of disasters, end of a cycle and planets aligned. The Maya tracked, among others, the movements of the Orion Constellation, Mars, Mercury and Jupiter. This incredible book shows the importance and the extraordinary knowledge of astronomy, mathematics and the Venus Cycle, which was associated with war.
- Códice de Madrid - Now in Madrid, Spain, has more than one hundred pages divided into the Troano and the Cortesianus. It is thought it is the product of one scribe.
- Códice Paresianus - Paris, France – Contains prophecies, zodiac, calendars and references to the T’únes and K’atúnes. It is in a very poor condition. Some prophecies are of hope, some are warnings. One of the prophecies says that our world, as we know it, will come to an end in the 13th. Baktún (2012). Then a new calendar will start.
|Mérida Yucatán, Museum|
Maya Human Representation - INAH – Instituto Nacional de Arqueología e Historia
|Chichén-Itzá – Balankanché Maya Caves|
México ©María O. Baum
- First Mother Earth had animals, then wet clay, after the clay, the earth had wood.
- The creation of the first ‘abuelos’ (elders, grandparents) didn't last long: they were made of clay. The gods sent a terrible flood to destroy their creation.
- Then, came the man made of wood; it didn't work, he didn't praise the gods. The gods sent a terrible flood to Mother Earth to destroy all their creation.
- Then, came the man from maize dough; the man of corn. The gods were happy with their creation.
- Hu'Nal'ye resuscitated from the *crack of a turtle when his sons brought him back from X’ibalbá. He was the one that created the Maya world.
Maya Cross - Represents the Cardinal points
- In Teotihuacán – “The Place Where Men Become Gods” legend says that a giant constructed the city.
- Many of the Maya cities are aligned and designed astronomically with the exact layout of planets and stars, although this is true in many other civilizations around the world.
- He could fly when he was inside the "feathered serpent" and he could also slither as a snake.
- Sometimes represented as a warrior coming out of the snake’s jaw.
- The Plumed Serpent Quetzalcóatl traveled with Xólotl to the Underworld.
- Quetzalcóatl was associated with Venus.
- Known as Quetzalcóatl by his Náhua followers, he is the equivalent to Gukumatz or Kukulcán, also feathered serpent, in the Mesoamerican region and revered in Chichén Itza, Uxmal and Mayapan.
- When depicted as a human, he was described as a six foot tall man when standing. With long white hair, white skin and blue eyes, he would get inside the feathered snake to fly.
- Kukulkán was the priest-ruler at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán.
- Kukulkán is sometimes related to earthquakes and depicted as traveling with Cha’ac, the deity of the rain. By moving his tail he would produce winds and rain.
- The Lacandón-Maya in the area of Bonampak-Yaxchilán in Chiapas and in the North of Guatemala portray him as a monster snake, pet of the sun god that produces not only earthquakes but terrible fires.
- After teaching the Maya medicine, agriculture and how to run civilization, he spent some time on Earth and later returned to the ocean.
- He told the Maya that he would return and when the Spanish arrived, the locals saw them as the second coming of their god.
"11 Ahau was when the mighty men arrived from the East. They were the ones who first
Ah'Puch was also known as H'un A'hau and Y'um Cimi and had his place in the deepest part of the underworld where all dead arrive.
Related to the owl, it appears as a skull with small rattles around his neck, wrists and legs. He was a good deity that could be deceived by tricks.
|Chichén-Itzá – Balankanché Maya Caves|
México ©María O. Baum
Bolon D'zacab - Bacabs
Ek Chu'Ah – God K
Tlaltecuhti -"Lady of Earth" - Náhuatl Language
Teotihuacán, México - Foto INA
Xóloitzcuitli - Xólo from the God Xólotl and Iticuintli or Itzcuintli, dog
Yum Ka'Ax - Yum Kaax - God of Maize
King Pakal's Tomb - Palenque, Chiapas
- They observed the sky and learned the cycles of the moon, sun, Venus, Orion and Sirius.
- Controlled the population by fear and ignorance.
- Predicted eclipses and droughts and knew when to plant and harvest.
- They had to know astronomy in order to know about cycles and had sophisticated knowledge in different subjects that the flying god had given them.
Used by the electrical industry, in capacitors for high frequency and radio frequency." It is used to build computers and by the NASA.
|Palenque, Chiapas - México - © María O. Baum|
Do we have the correct dates?
The tzá-Maya made an adjustment in their calendar so that the cycle, that was due to end two Katuns later in an apocalyptic date of 13 Ahau, would be celebrated on a different date.
- The Ritual of the Four World Quarters and a prophecy for Katún 11 A’hau (Ajaw), where it announces the arrival of the Spaniards to America in the year 1492.
- This date was magical. However, the tzá-Maya, in Guatemala in the Petén region and southern Mexico who spoke the Itzá language, made a new revision of its calendar and changed the dates. This revision was made so that the cycle, that was due to end two Katúns later, in an apocalyptic date of 13 Ahau, would be celebrated on a different date. It was the end of the tribute to the Spanish and a drastic change of the new Mexican nation.
- After defeating the Spanish in 1821, The Constitution of the United Mexican States - La Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, was enacted on October 4 of 1824, on the date that the Maya predicted a big change.
- 1492 - Spain invasion
- 1824 - Mexican Constitution
Makes reference to what was before the Spaniards arrived:
the bearded, the messengers of the signal of divinity, the foreigners of the land,the robust.” (Spaniards).
- The 520 year count starts December 24, 1492 – 11 Ajau (Ajaw) Katún– Ichcaanzihó (Mérida,Yucatán, México) and ends in the 13 Ajaw K’atún.